We’ve talked about ASEAN’s potential and the challenges it faces. Now, we will discuss the potential interventions needed in Southeast Asia in the context of PCVE. In general, there should be non-violent interventions in ASEAN. According to Sharp, non-violent action is resistance that targets the opponent’s sources of power, including financial resources, legal legitimacy, citizen compliance, and so on (Sharp, 1973 in IIS, 2019). A study done by Maria Stephan and Erica Chenoweth (2008, 2011) in Kusumaningrum (2019) shows that the effectiveness rate of nonviolent action is 53%, while resistance with violence is only 26% successful. This rate indicates that intervention in ASEAN should encourage the use of nonviolent action approaches.
In the context of PCVE, non-violent approaches have been used in several collaborations or initiatives across Southeast Asia. In Indonesia, there is Knowledge Hub (K-Hub) initiative. K-Hub is a center of knowledge for PCVE issues and development powered by CSOs across the country. The hub contains research materials, best practices, and other related activities. There is also Beyond Borders Malaysia who create an arts space that involves foreign refugees from the Southeast Asian region and abroad. This initiative is led by women with the intention to be a bridge of culture and religion between these refugees and Malaysian society. Citing Don Pathan’s statement in SEAN-CSO September Webinar, these approaches that combine an array of subjects are important because they create context out of each subject such as culture, religion, and science that prevents conflicts from advancing.
It should also be a reminder that ASEAN itself already has guidelines for PCVE policies and initiatives called the Bali Work Plan 2019-2025. Inside the work plan contains directions for PCVE initiatives to use knowledge based in several priority areas including women, youth, religion, and development. With the example of non-violent initiatives and work plans that already exist for Southeast Asia, it is safe to say that the region already has the basics that can be worked on for the future. If the respective ASEAN sectoral bodies and the network of PCVE CSOs in the region increase their collaboration and work, it would immensely help the development of peace in Southeast Asia.
- Mulakala, A. (Ed.). (2020). Conflict prevention and Peacebuilding in Asia: Lessons in South-South Cooperation. The Asia Foundation. Retrieved September 8, 2022, from https://asiafoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/AADC-2018_Conflict-Prevention-and-Peacebuilding-in-Asia-Lessons-in-South-South-Cooperation.pdf
- Sharp, G. (1973). The Politics of Nonviolent Action. Part 2: The Methods of Nonviolent Action. Bedford: Porter Sargent Publishing.
- Oo, Z., Ford, B., & Pinckney, J. (2021, September 17). Myanmar in the streets: A nonviolent movement shows staying power. United States Institute of Peace (Analysis and Commentary). Retrieved September 12, 2022, from https://www.usip.org/publications/2021/03/myanmar-streets-nonviolent-movement-shows-staying-power
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- Petz, D., Handiani , D. S., Kusumaningrum , D., & Aprillia, K. R. (2022). [Damai Pangkal Damai] Mengadang Otokratisasi: Refleksi Perlawanan Nirkekerasan di Indonesia dan Dunia 2021. (D. Kusumaningrum & D. Petz, Eds.)Institute of International Studies, Universitas Gadjah Mada. Institute of International Studies, Universitas Gadjah Mada. Retrieved September 14, 2022, from https://iis.fisipol.ugm.ac.id/download/damai-pangkal-damai-refleksi-perlawanan-nirkekerasan-di-indonesia-dan-dunia-2021/#.
- Rahman, M. A. (2018). Peran peace keeping operation negara anggota ASEAN Dalam Mendukung Misi perdamaian PBB. Jurnal Pertahanan & Bela Negara, 6(3). https://doi.org/10.33172/jpbh.v6i3.319
- Suzuki, S. (2021). Intervention and state strength: Association of Southeast Asian Nations and Economic Community of West African States compared. International Area Studies Review, 24(1), 35–54. https://doi.org/10.1177/22338659211010296 (2019).
- Work Plan of The ASEAN Plan of Action to Prevent and Counter The Rise Of Radicalisation And Violent Extremism (2019 – 2025). ASEAN Secretariat. https://asean.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/Bali-Work-Plan-Narrative-and-Matrix-adopted-27November2019-1.pdf